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Losses of several thousand stock and other damage occurred as a result of flooding in Southland and South Otago on the 12th. In contrast with the previous month, July was mild, and stock were reported to be wintering fairly well. August was cold but sunny. Conditions were not particularly favourable for lambing.

September was a warm month marked by exceptionally strong winds from a westerly quarter.


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In Nelson, Marlborough, and Canterbury conditions were rather too dry. However, in Southland and Otago this was a particularly wet month, and it followed six months of predominantly wet weather, especially in Southland. Besides stock losses due to flooding there were many reports of losses in both lambs and ewes from the wet weather and lack of feed.

Many gales were reported, especially in the South Island on the 13th, with some damage, particularly around Dunedin.

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October was also marked by a somewhat greater frequency of winds from a westerly quarter than usual. It was a warm month, and particularly warm and sunny in Gisborne and Hawke's Bay. November was a warm month but unusually cloudy in the North Island. It was also rather dry, especially in Gisborne and Hawke's Bay and in Marlborough, with serious effects on stock and crops.

The spring season of September, October and November was the warmest on record in eastern districts from Gisborne to Canterbury. Pressures were unusually low over New Zealand in December and the weather was cool and windy. Over the northern half of the North Island good growth was reported, but elsewhere conditions were too dry, with a shortage of feed in some eastern districts.

Summary of Meteorological Observations for —The observations from which the following summary was compiled for the year were at hours New Zealand standard time, i.

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For the mean sea level pressure values in millibars at hours New Zealand standard time were: Auckland, It is generally accepted that the Maoris came originally from South-east Asia, whence, as proto-Polynesians, they moved eastwards from island to island until they reached the eastern Pacific, where they settled the islands now known collectively as Polynesia. From Polynesia the ancestors of the Maori sailed south-west in ocean-going canoes to reach New Zealand and these voyages were probably spread over several generations, perhaps several centuries.

Oral Maori history and genealogy support the view that there was a final wave of migration of considerable magnitude about A. Adapting themselves to a new physical environment, in isolation from the outside world, the Maoris produced forms of social and economic organisation and material culture which were significantly different from their Polynesian prototypes.

Coming from tropical latitudes, the Maoris mainly confined themselves to the warmer North Island, and when discovered by Europeans were in a high state of neolithic civilisation, with marked superiority in the arts of wood carving and military engineering. Their principal social unit was the family group, and from combinations of the numerous groups were formed the subtribes and tribes. They had highly developed social and ritualistic customs, and their system of land tenure and methods of cultivation were communal within the subtribes.

Inter-tribal and intra-tribal warfare was common, and as individuals Maoris displayed exceptional courage and intelligence. From the early days of European settlement in the first half of the nineteenth century many Maoris believed that their interests were best served by co-operation with the settlers. For the most part the Europeans adopted a humanitarian attitude to the Maori people, who accepted their assurances and found a satisfactory safeguard for their interests in the exercise of their rights and privileges of British subjects.

As the Europeans established a self-contained and aggressively growing society, there grew up a rivalry for land and a clash of power. In the s Maori tribes in Taranaki, Waikato, and Bay of Plenty fought the settlers and Government troops in a series of sporadic campaigns based on loss of land rights and rising Maori nationalism. After there followed the development of a European colony of settlement with Maori people making further economic adjustments to European ways. The introduction of European diseases and firearms, and the impact of European civilisation on the traditional way of life and customs of the Maoris, had such an adverse effect that their numbers must have been reduced by over half during the nineteenth century.

However, the virility of the race gradually asserted itself, and from the beginning of the twentieth century the Maori population has been rapidly increasing though still forming a minority component. The overseas territories of Niue Island and the Tokelau Islands had also long been inhabited by Polynesians from various successive migrations extending over considerable periods prior to their discovery by Europeans.

Tasman had left Batavia on 14 August , and, after having discovered Tasmania, he steered eastward and sighted the west coast of the South Island, described by him as a high mountainous country. Sailing north, he had the misfortune to come into conflict with the Maoris at Golden Bay, on the north coast of the South Island, so that, though he continued his northward journey until he reached the northern tip of the country, he did not again attempt to land.

Cook and a party of men from the Endeavour landed at Gisborne on 9 October On his first voyage Cook spent 6 months exploring the New Zealand coastline, and he completely circumnavigated the North and South Islands. Not only was Cook's ability shown by his cartographical accuracy, but also in his peaceful dealings with the Maoris.

He returned to New Zealand again in , , and in His careful observations made New Zealand known to the western world; the accounts of his voyages were translated into a dozen languages. The bi-centenary of Cook's first visit to New Zealand was celebrated in ; an account of his voyages of discovery in the Pacific is given on pages to of the issue of the Official Yearbook.

The first recorded discovery of the Tokelau Islands was made by Quiros in European Settlement and Colonisation —Whaling stations sprang up along the coast from onwards and a trade with New South Wales began not only in whale oil and seal skins, but also in flax and timber. In Samuel Marsden, chaplain to the Governor of New South Wales, was responsible for the establishment of the first mission station in the Bay of Islands.

To promote the translation of the Bible into Maori, Thomas Kendall one of Marsden's assistants took two Maori chiefs with him to England in The printing of the Bible in Maori was made possible through the establishment of a printing press by William Colenso at Paihia in the Bay of Islands in The growing white population in the Bay of Islands, and the lawlessness of crews of visiting ships led to the appointment by the British Government of James Busby as British Resident at Waitangi in Among other things, Hobson suggested a treaty with the Maori chiefs and the placing of British subjects under British law.

By numerous mission stations had spread through the northern half of the North Island. Conversion of Maori tribes to Christianity was accompanied by the introduction of new crops and methods of cultivation and pacification of the warring tribes. The first body of immigrants to reach New Zealand under a definite scheme of colonisation arrived at Port Nicholson, Wellington, on 22 January to found the initial settlement of the New Zealand Company. The colonists were in the main sturdy resourceful people seeking a better future than was offering in nineteenth century industrial England.

The guiding genius of the company, Edward Gibbon Wakefield, aware of the intention of the British Government to annex New Zealand, had earlier in , dispatched his agents in order to purchase large areas of land from the Maoris before the Crown could assume a monopoly of land purchase. Wakefield's scheme of colonisation was based on the sale of land to investors or men of wealth for development by labouring class immigrants. With the profit from land sales the company could bring out more immigrants.

Wakefield aimed at a balance between landowners and labourers; in effect he aimed to transplant a cross-section of English society. But, ignorant of the system of tribal ownership of Maori land, the company had bought land from individual Maoris; then Hobson provided that all European land titles should derive from the Crown which would be the only purchaser of land from the Maoris.

Title to land remained a difficulty for some years and was a cause of distress to the colonists and, combined with a considerable degree of absentee ownership and land speculation, made most precarious the existence of the early company settlements of Wellington, Wanganui, New Plymouth, and Nelson.

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The company had brought nearly 10, persons to New Zealand by The later settlements of Otago, in , and Canterbury, in , organised under the aegis of the New Zealand Company in co-operation with the Free Church of Scotland and the Church of England respectively, achieved a much greater measure of success owing to the absence of any large Maori population and to satisfactory land purchase arrangements.

The non-Maori population in the main settlements in totalled 3, in Wellington, 2, in Auckland, 2, in Nelson, in New Plymouth, in Russell, in Hokianga, and in Akaroa. By the non-Maori population had reached , as against 55, Maoris and by it had jumped to , with men from Australia joining in the gold rush to Otago. Migration then dropped away until when there was a high inflow for several years from Britain with the Vogel policy of public works development. After the death of Hobson in , subsequent governors, through lack of funds and weak administration, found themselves unable to protect the small and helpless settlements from threatening Maori aggression engendered by strong feelings on land ownership.

The response of the Colonial Office was to appoint Captain George Grey as Governor and to provide him with adequate funds and troops so that he soon restored order and won not only the confidence of the Maoris but also for a time that of the settlers. Grey, through his chief land purchase officer, Donald McLean, endeavoured to buy up land in advance of the settlers' needs in order to prevent conflict between settlers and Maoris. By the census revealed that the settlers outnumbered the Maoris who, fearful that they were being swamped by the settlers, became increasingly reluctant to sell their land.

At the same time the intensified settler pressure for more land led McLean to negotiate only with those Maoris still favourably disposed to land sales. This practice alarmed the other Maoris and finally the war broke out in over a land dispute at Waitara in Taranaki where settler demand for land was strongest. The return of Grey as Governor did not solve the problem for, as an autocrat, he could not work with elected ministers nor could he regain the confidence of the Maoris and finally he quarrelled with the commander of the Imperial troops. Widespread confiscation of Maori land by the settlers' government in order to pay the cost of the war included land belonging to friendly as well as hostile Maoris and aroused further resentment.

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Although the war had died down by it was only during the term of Donald McLean as Native Minister that some measure of reconciliation began with the establishment of four Maori electorates in Public Works and Farm Development —The absence of hostilities and the discovery of gold there had allowed the South Island to obtain a lead in commercial and political development which it long maintained. Moreover, with the subsequent agrarian expansion especially in the development of the large pastoral holdings, the country ceased to be merely self-sufficient agriculturally but began to develop a substantial export trade, mainly in wool.

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By the gold boom had ended in the South Island. To remedy the situation of economic stagnation, Sir Julius Vogel began a policy of extensive borrowing for railway and road construction and for immigrant labour. The results of this policy were to double the population to , by , to immensely improve transport and communications, and to encourage industry in the towns where most of the immigrants had congregated.

After Vogel's plans for these loans to be secured against the land were frustrated by the provinces, he decided that the provincial system, begun in , had outlived its usefulness and that parochialism was a hindrance to the development of the colony. The system was abolished in , local administration being provided for by the Counties Act and the Municipal Corporations Act When systematic colonisation began, New Zealand's only important trade association was with the east coast of Australia.

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It was, however, the inflow of British capital which set the New Zealand economy on a path of growth: that determined by the requirements of markets in the United Kingdom. Britain with a vigorously expanding demand from its working population required from the young colony an assured and increasing supply of food and raw materials, and a guaranteed market for its industrial goods. In accordance with this archetypal pattern of colonial development agricultural trade with the United Kingdom assumed over-riding importance as the land was brought into production.

By , in spite of the problem of distance, the United Kingdom had already become New Zealand's principal trading partner. With the introduction of refrigeration in and steam navigation in the late 19th century, the development of exports of frozen meat and dairy products assured the dominance of the United Kingdom in New Zealand's external trade.

These developments, with a continued substantial investment of British capital, particularly in farming and food processing industries, established that degree of specialisation to meet the needs of the British market, which shaped the entire New Zealand economy during its first hundred years. The depression of the s, a consequence of a fall in world price levels, resulted in unemployment and large emigration but export prices recovered in the nineties.

From onwards the natural increase of births over deaths exceeded the net inflow from migration. The Government pursued a vigorous legislative programme in which the main emphasis was that of social justice, the principal manifestations of which were the breaking up of the large estates, the establishment of the Court of Arbitration, and the introduction of old age pensions. The policy of subdivision of large estates to produce closer settlement included the compulsory purchase of large holdings by the State, but more important were the effects of refrigeration, which encouraged the smaller dairy and fat-lamb farms, the accelerated Government purchase of Maori lands and the widespread introduction of systems of Crown leasehold with subsequent loans to small farmers to establish themselves.

In inaugurating the Court of Arbitration, the object was to eliminate strikes by giving labour a recognised bargaining status; and the enactment was in accord with the enlightened code of labour legislation passed at that time under the influence of William Pember Reeves. The 6 years from with Joseph Ward as Prime Minister were marked by several notable events in imperial affairs, but, on the whole, the Government's domestic policies were singularly uninspiring.

These farmers, having benefited by the spread of prosperity, were in mainly responsible together with the city businessmen for the overthrow of the Liberal regime. The new Reform Government under William Massey, in order to strengthen the primary producer, introduced measures of which the extension of rural credit was typical. Industrial conflict on the waterfront and with the Waihi miners ended in a victory for Massey who relied on the use of troops and special constables to repress the strikes.

Three years after the advent of the Reform Party, the First World War, —, broke out, leading to a coalition Government and an Imperial commandeer of exports which created the precedent for the establishment after the war of central boards to regulate the exports of pastoral products. War activities were marked by heavy casualties in proportion to the population while the landing at Gallipoli signified the growing awareness of a sense of nationhood.

Though the effects of the post-war depression during the period —24 showed themselves in an increase in unemployment and slight wage reduction, no drastic legislation was necessary to stabilise economic conditions. During the following years the price level rose; and on the administrative side, the period was characterised by extensive public works expenditure, with particular attention to hydro-electric schemes and highways.

Prime Ministers in the 10 years from were J. Land values rose steeply, accelerated by Government efforts to settle returned servicemen on the land, and between and forty percent of the occupied land had changed hands. New Zealand was extremely vulnerable to the overseas price fluctuations of the pastoral products.


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  8. With the advent of the depression by , farmers, despite greatly increased production, were faced with a serious decline in income over forty percent together with heavy mortgage commitments on land bought at high prices so that many were faced with foreclosure. In the towns, tradesmen and shopkeepers faced bankruptcy, and wage earners unemployment or reduction in wages.

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    A coalition Government, formed in to meet the crisis had, as its leading figure, Coates, who was Minister of Finance from In order to produce balanced budgets and cope with the effects of the depression, enactments provided for unemployment relief, for the suspension, in effect, of compulsory arbitration, for the establishment of a Reserve Bank, for a mortgage moratorium, for raising the exchange rate, and for reduction in interest rates and wages. Partly as a consequence of these measures and of a rise in overseas price levels a general economic revival was taking place by Development as a Nation —The election of a Labour Government in with notable politicians including Michael Savage, Peter Fraser, and Walter Nash, who successively became Prime Ministers reflected the general climate of opinion and led to change in administrative policy, the preoccupation being mainly with social problems.

    These attitudes were reflected in certain distinctive trends in legislation. The first major influence was a humanitarian attitude reinforced by a progressive economic policy.